22-24 luty 2017



Marta R. Jabłońska, Krzysztof Billewicz, Web 2.0 on B2C Polish energy market – visual content marketing tools research

Web 2.0 on B2C Polish energy market – visual content marketing tools research

Marta R. Jabłońska (1), Krzysztof Billewicz (2)

(1) University of Lodz, Faculty of Economics and Sociology, Institute of Applied Economics and Informatics, Department of Computer Science In Economics, Poland, 90-214 Łódź, ul.Rewolucji 1905 r. nr 37

(2)Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Department of Electrical Power Engineering, Poland, 50-370 Wrocław, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27

Wersja Oryginalna


Web 2.0 describes WWW sites that especially put emphasis on user-generated content, usability and interoperability. Nowadays the vast number of companies all around the world understand that the Internet and social media are powerful marketing tools to be reckoned with. Yet, Facebook profile seems no longer to be sufficient customer relationship management tool. At the same time content marketing is getting more and more popular. It is a marketing strategy concentrating on creating and distributing valuable, relevant and consistent content (information) in order to acquire and retain customers, build long-lasting relation and, eventually, to drive advantageous customer actions. This information often can be presented in a variety of visual formats such as: films, podcasts, photos or infographics. The aim of this paper is to present the current use of visual content marketing tools on the energy market in the relationship between the energy companies and end users. To reach this aim, authors conducted a study analyzing social media deployment among Polish energy market companies.

KeywordsWeb 2.0, social media, content marketing, energy market,

1. Introduction

          In the beginning of 21st century, there has been widespread of Web 2.0 sites. The term itself was coined by Tim O’Reilly in his article „What is Web 2.0‟ in the year 2005 [35]. It refers to a new phase of WWW development and consists of a set of Internet technologies that facilitate open and participatory work [38]. While the Internet has traditionally been used as a one-way communication channel (usually company → client), the concept of - so called - participative web has risen in popularity due to the advent of social networking, which facilitates multi-way conversations among Internet users [43]. As a result, websites have become co-created by the readers, but also companies have started to put more emphasis on Internet content creation.          Among Web 2.0 most important perceived strengths its viral nature should be mentioned. Interesting content can spread over the Internet quickly, gathering numerous web communities excited by presented information. Yet, Web 2.0 services have also significant weaknesses such as the time consuming effort it took to learn how to use them in an effective manner or prepare high-quality, compelling content [9]. Due to the fact that information society generates growing number of data in all part of its activity [30], creation of attractive, engaging content becomes real challenge.          With dissemination and growing popularity of social media, companies face the necessity of creating Internet content strategy. They have to learn about their clients and web audience, figure out how to create interesting ideas to reach them, and enter a conversation with them so that there is a trust and comfort. Content marketing will help establish a brand audience that engages consistently with company’s content and recommends brand to others via social networks [27].          In the paper the possibilities of visual content marketing were presented. Then an analysis of deployment of Web 2.0 visual content marketing tools were conducted. This paper is a continuation of previous work held by one of the authors about Web 2.0 tools on energy market published in 2015 [20].

2. Previous work and findings

          Previous paper [20] addressed the question of the use of Web 2.0 tools in the Polish and British energy market for communication with the end customer. It described the research in which the comparative analysis of selected Web 2.0 tools usage by Polish and British energy companies was conducted.           In that study, a comparative analysis of the three most important social networks usage on the energy market in B2C communication process that means in contact with the final customer. For accurate diagnosis of the Polish sector, the analysis also was taken on the British energy market. The paper described review of the current literature in the scope of Web 2.0 tools and the Internet communities. Then, the second part was devoted to the description of the analysis. The last part of previous article provided a summary and conclusions and in the appendix all dynamics of changes in the extensive user interaction were presented in graphical form.           In that paper three social media tools were taken under consideration due to their popularity and range: Facebook – an online social networking service, Twitter – a microblogging service and video-sharing website called YouTube. For the analysis the official energy supplier profiles for individual clients were used: PGE, Energa, Tauron and Enea. The latter, however, did not have official channels of communication in the analyzed Web 2.0 tools, so was excluded from the further study. To better assess the results, they have been compared to the selected British markets operators (Scottish Power, OVO Energy, SSE, E.ON Energy UK, British Gas). Due to the data availability, the analyzed period was limited to one month.           Obtained results have shown that the awareness of Web 2.0 opportunities and the need of their usage was revealed only by some of the analyzed subjects. Only one out of four Polish energy companies did not have official Web 2.0 communication channels. The second – in spite of creation of the official profiles – showed no further activity. The other two subjects, however, have established their presence in social media. The UK market was more matured in terms of the number of tools used as well as the frequency of content publication.           The findings of conducted research, as well as further studies, led the authors of this paper to prepare second part of Web 2.0 tools dissemination on Polish B2C energy market.

3. Content marketing

          Social media is an engaging area of research that is promptly evolving [26]. The core role that social media play in nowadays organizations communication strategy was outlined i.e. in: [17], [23], [29], [49] or [14]. One of the reason of such engagement is that social media allow [21], [5], [3], [7], [24]: - interaction with users who are highly involved, - building relationships with individuals, - representing the organization in a positive way to their online communities, - providing a synergistic form of interplay and dissemination to huge numbers of consumers, - changing the organization’s message from commercial source of information to being perceived as a social source.           Initially, Web 2.0 services were used by organizations as broadcasting tools but now they rather turn towards content marketing [29] [42]. Transforming a marketing, corporate message into a social message, creating interest, involvement and tapping consumers as advocates, facilitating the majority of content – these are the core values of proper content marketing. Organizations need to create content adapted for the social environment and contributed to the social media community that encourages user generated content [6], [32], [33].           Thanks to Web 2.0 tools that implie development of interactive communication, the consumers are beginning to have a larger influence on the organization-customer relations. A dominant communication channel that the Internet towards, has had a major influence on the broad information availability, as well as on the proliferation of well-informed consumers and their impact on the organization and its environment [37].           Content marketing can be seen as a powerful marketing tactic in the digital, information society [22]. On the Internet, consumers may choose what information to receive, in what kind of format that information is in and whether to believe the content [16]. What is more, thanks to mobile technologies, customers may receive content almost all the time. That is why, many multinational companies involve in content marketing to build a consistent, desired brand image.

          There are several features of successful content marketing as they were presented on Figure 1.

Fig. 1 Main features of successful content marketing.Source: own elaboration based on [22].

          Personalization is one of a crucial factors as customers today expect to have personalized experiences reflecting personal needs, attitudes and situations [28]. Localization refers to i.e. cultural aspects that should be taken into consideration while creating content. Apart from getting the right words, placement and timing, good content must also exist within a culture background [22]. Engaging content should be viral and this requires arousing emotions. Information may be presented in a funny, humorous, appealing and pleasurable way or even in shocking or brutal manner [34]. The aim is to not leave consumer indifferent. To prevent customers from disengagement from the brand, delivered content should be diversified, as repeated communiqué may be perceived as boring. Co-creation comes up in the situation when online consumers seek for opportunity to participate in generating information towards organizations for consumer insights [46]. Good content should provide disclosure and transparency to ensure trust and honesty.           Web 2.0 users may be classified in various ways. Yet, it is important to create different content for every group to ensure getting involvement. Figure 2 presents recapitulation of different classifications of users in respect of level of relation to content creation..

Fig. 2 Different classifications of Web 2.0 users.Source: own elaboration based on [19].

          Highly influential users (celebrities and evangelists) contribute much time and energy to a community as they are its leading members. Collectors, critics and creators are playing different roles in content creation as they can invent, upload, comment or share it. Newbies are newcomers to a community that have made their first online postings but do not have strong commitment to social networks. Passive users usually do not participate in online communities as they can only “lurk” in or consume what others produce [19].           Digital content may be defined as bit-based objects distributed through electronic channels [39]. As visual content seems to getting more and more appealing to consumers, Web 2.0 services based on this type of a content have become widespread. Short films, podcasts, photos or infographics have more viral potential than written text, that is why they are important component of content marketing. In the following section selected, some of the most popular Web 2.0 services basing on visual content marketing will be presented as they will be the part of conducted study.

4. Visual content marketing tools

          Usage of text-only social media posts seems to become insufficient, since numerous companies are trying to get to customers through that channel. As an effect, consumers are becoming ‘advertisement-blind’ and simply ignore text posted by organizations on Facebook or other social networking sites. This situation demands new, engaging forms of attracting customers’ attention.           That is why visual content marketing tools are used more often by business owners and digital marketers to amplify their current content marketing strategies.           Among the most important advantages of visual content marketing the following should be mentioned [12]: - visual content helps rivet targeted audiences’ attention, generates more views on social media and may increase the number of followers and subscribers. What is more, people spend more time on a site with compelling visual content, - the human brain is able to process only a very limited amount of information at any given time. Visual content may be processed 60 000 faster that it takes to decode text message. It is also important that 93% of human communication is non-verbal and 90% of information that enters human brain is also non-verbal. That is why visual content may break the wall of customers indifference, - engaging visual content may become viral easily as it influences human emotions, - visual content is more understandable and increases chances of customer’s involvement, response and taking actions.           Currently, the most popular visual content marketing tools are: Instagram, Pinterest, YouTube, Tumblr, Vine and Snapchat. All of them will be used in the research conducted for the purposes of this paper.           Instagram is currently one of the fastest growing social media service, yet little attention has been paid to understand visual communication marketing through this tool [15]. Instagram was designed in 2010 for sharing pictures and short videos. In June 2016 total number of active users has exceeded 500 million [40].           Users may post photos and short (not more than 15 seconds long) videos, providing some laconic description and adding so called ‘hashtags’. These are words preceded with the “#” symbol, used for structuring the multiple themes that users classify their content. Photo filters available on the Instagram help users to provide more appealing content. Customer engagement may be increased also thanks to the possibility of leaving comments.           As a marketing tool, Instagram users who follow brands on social media are found to be more aware of brand news and activities [7]. Concentrating on visual content, this tool is an effective way to advertise a product, with low costs required [18]. Study conducted in [1] presents that Instagram may be successful in increasing in sales.           Just as Instagram, Pinterest was founded in 2010. It is a visual bookmarking tool, a pinboard-style content sharing platform that helps to discover and save creative ideas [36]. Designed especially for visual content, it has gained great attention in recent years.           All graphic information is termed “pins” and gathered on so called pinboards. Pinterest’s users can come after new content similarly to Twitter. There are two ways to follow on Pinterest: a specific user or unique pinboard. The first one allows to keep an eye on all the pinboards that specific person has created and automatically follow any pinboard he or she creates in the future. While the second one enables to follow a particular pinboard by a taste or interests.           Pinterest, also called social curating service, has been marked as the fastest growing web site to reach 10 million unique visitors [13], so it can be an effective tool for collecting, organizing, managing and sharing visual content. The importance of visual content is here outlined by a fact that direct communications between users are not available and the basic function is to let collect, manage and share pins (however comments on particular pins are possible). That is why, appealing visual content is becoming crucial. Companies with interesting, high quality photos and videos may use Pinterest as a marketing tool by creating virtual ‘storefronts’, presenting lifestyle connected with their mission and vision or popularizing important sponsored events.           YouTube, founded in 2005, is an entertainment and social interaction website [25], a video sharing site for uploading and sharing online videos. User can comment, send messages and add advertisements as well. Google search engine and good adaptation to mobile devices [31] increase its popularity and nowadays organizations incline towards using YouTube as a part of their visual content marketing strategy.           This tool can be implemented into marketing approach in two ways: - creating a channel that allows to publish and share own visual content, - purchasing advertisements broadcasted before other users videos.           For the visual content strategy – that is the main subject of this paper – the most important option is the first one.           Just as YouTube, Vine is a video sharing service. Yet, the content are short looping videos not exceeding six seconds. Through these files, called Vines, people have an entirely new medium to express themselves and their creativity. Service empowers anyone to share stories with the world and is a space where people can connect, entertain and be entertained [48]. Founded in 2013, it quickly has got popular due to the fact that short looping videos are becoming viral very easily. If a posted content is getting highly popular, it gets a flame icon, that means it is being looped at a high rate. Creating such short videos that will be appealing and rise brand-awareness is not a simple task for many organizations, still they are interested in this tool.           Tumblr is a microblogging platform and social networking website founded in 2007. As distinct from previously mentioned tools, it allows much more variety of content creation. Registered users create blogs and may post: text, photos, quotes, links, dialogue, audio and video files [45]. Tumblr offers features of popular social networking and blogging sites, with easy posting of visual content [11].           The last analyzed tool is Snapchat. It is the self-destructing application, due to its unique feature that it erases messages several seconds after they have been sent, affording its users a higher level of privacy [47]. The visual content can be in the form of short video or photos, so called snaps. The time limit for sharing the content is extremely short, ranging from 1 to 10 seconds. New, appealing form of broadcasting visual content has caught on and this mobile social platform has become prominent in recent years [2].           Figure 3 presents popularity of each presented tool.

Fig. 3 Total number of active users of visual content marketing tools.Source: own elaboration, based on [41], [8].

5. Deployment of visual content marketing tools on Polish energy market

          For the purpose of conducted analysis, four subjects were considered: GK PGE, Enea Co., Energa and Tauron Polish Energy Co. To extend the set of subjects two additional licensed energy retailers in the Polish energy market were taken into consideration: Orange Energy and Plus Power Industry. Both are telecommunication companies that decided to wider trade offer and recently have started to sell energy. The official profiles (or channels) for individual clients were investigated.           The main aim of the analysis was to define a deployment of each visual content marketing tool (Instagram, Pinterest, YouTube, Vine Tumblr, Snapchat) for every of the above energy suppliers. The findings were presented in this section.

5.1. Instagram

          Estimated number of Instagram users in Poland range amounts to 3.2 million [50]. As this tool is getting more and more popular among customers, it is crucial to implement it in company’s visual content marketing strategy.          Among analyzed subjects only one (GK PGE) possessed an official Instagram profile. It has been used for visual content marketing and raising the brand awareness but also for some charitable purposes as well. Three others used this tool to promote sponsored events or sport teams (i.e.: Energa Basket Cup, ENEA AZS Poznań or Vive Tauron Kielce), so they cannot be analyzed as official companies profiles. Orange Energy and Plus Power Industry own official profiles for their companies, Orange Poland and Polkomtel Plus accordingly. Yet, due to wide and diversified offer, energy supply was only a part of posted content.          The comparison of Instagram usage for GK PGE, Orange Energy and Plus Power Industry is presented in the table 1.

Table. 1 Instagram statistics for official profiles Source: own elaboration.

5.2. Pinterest

          The number of Pinterest users in Poland is almost twice as low as for the Instagram and range between 1.4 and 1.7 million [50].           Amongst analyzed subjects only one has an official profile (Tauron Polish Energy Co.). This communicating channel has got 6 pinboards, 75 pins, 4 likes, 10 followers and 6 following. The same energy supplier possessed also additional profile for supported basketball team.           Energa, just as for the Instagram, maintained an account for supported event and GK PGE for sponsored buildings, but none of them owned an official communicating channel. Orange Poland has an account without any reference to energy retail.

5.3. YouTube

          YouTube can be perceived as one of the most popular visual content marketing tools in Poland as it is used by over 16 million of Polish web surfers [4].

          Selected results of the evaluation will be compared to according data from previous work [20] to present dynamics of deployment process as it is illustrated in the figure 4 and figure 5. Figure 6 illustrates total number of video views in 2016. It is important to notice the interaction between number of uploads and video views. Tauron Polish Energy Co. has reached the biggest increase in uploads but GK PGE is the first in gaining new subscribers. This proves that appealing, high-quality visual content has considerable power of influence on customers and not just the quantity of videos uploaded.

          The dynamics of changes between previous and current year are presented in the table 2.

Fig. 4 Number of YouTube uploads on official channels between 2014 and 2016.Source: own elaboration.

Fig. 5 Number of YouTube subscribers on official channels between 2014 and 2016.Source: own elaboration.

Table. 2 YouTube changes between 2014 and 2016 for official profiles.

          Orange Energy and Plus Power Industry hasn’t possessed official energy retailers communication channels but – similarly to Instagram – owned one common channel for promoting all the offer.

5.4. Vine, Tumblr and Snapchat

          Each of these visual content marketing tools is getting more and more popular. Estimated number of Tumblr users in Poland is 1.1 million [4] and Snapchat ranges between 1 and 1.2 million [10]. Vine is still not well disseminated in Poland, though its marketing potential has been noticed in many works.           Still, none of the analyzed subjects possessed official profiles on these services. Though some hashtags with energy operators are used, they yet remain unofficial.           To sum up, table 3 presents deployment of visual content marketing tools on Polish energy market. Only official channels and profiles were included.

Table. 3 YouTube changes between 2014 and 2016 for official profiles.

          Orange Energy and Plus Power Industry possessed official communication channel, still dedicated to the whole, varied offer of these telecommunication companies.


6. Conclusions and future works

          Visual content marketing is a new approach to online customer relationship management techniques as present methods lose effectiveness. Graphical content may be more appealing, eye-catching and improve the effectiveness of communication and interaction.           Social media based on visual content are quickly gaining popularity. Despite the epic discussion whether Instagram outruns Facebook, it has been reported that young people, so current and future customers, today spend more time on Instagram than Facebook [44]. This is why, nowadays organizations should take under consideration deployment of visual content into their marketing strategies.           Polish energy suppliers seem to be quite aware of this fact as they use some selected visual content marketing tools such as Instagram, YouTube or Pinterest. Still, the deployment of these services remains relatively low.           For the future study, authors of that paper plan a comparative analysis between Polish and selected abroad, more mature markets.


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